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Chapter 3 – Fundamentals of Statistics FRM-99, Question 4 Random walk assumes that returns from one time period are statistically independent from another period. This implies: A. Returns on 2 time periods can not be equal. B. Returns on 2 time periods are uncorrelated. C. Knowledge of the returns from one period does not help in predicting returns from another period D. Both b and c. FRM-99, Question 14 Suppose returns are uncorrelated over time. You are given that the volatility over 2 days is 1.2%. What is the volatility over 20 days? A. 0.38% B. 1.2% C. 3.79% D. 12.0%

σ ( R20 ) = 10σ ( R10 ) FRM-98, Question 7

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Assume an asset price variance increases linearly with time. Suppose the expected asset price volatility for the next 2 months is 15% (annualized), and for the 1 month that follows, the expected volatility is 35% (annualized). What is the average expected volatility over the next 3 months? A. 22% B. 24% C. 25% D. 35%

σ 13 = σ 12 + σ 22 + σ 32 = 0.152 + 0.152 + 0.352 σ σ av = 13 = 0.236 ≈ 24% 3

FRM-97, Question 15 The standard VaR calculation for extension to multiple periods assumes that returns are serially uncorrelated. If prices display trend, the true VaR will be: A. the same as standard VaR B. greater than the standard VaR C. less than the standard VaR D. unable to be determined Bad Question!!! “answer” is b. Positive trend assumes positive correlation between returns, thus increasing the longer period variance. Correct answer is that the trend will change mean, thus d. FRM-99, Question 2 Under what circumstances could the explanatory power of regression analysis be overstated? A. The explanatory variables are not correlated with one another. B. The variance of the error term decreases as the value of the dependent variable increases. C. The error term is normally distributed. D. An important explanatory variable is excluded. D. If the true regression includes a third variable z that influences both x and y, the error term will not be conditionally independent of x, which violates one of the assumptions of the OLS model. This will artificially increase the explanatory power of the regression. FRM-99, Question 20 What is the covariance between populations a and b: a 17 14 12 13 b 22 26 31 29 A. -6.25 B. 6.50 C. -3.61 D. 3.61

a = 14, b = 27 a-14 3 0 -2 -1

b-27 -5 -1 4 2

(a-14)(b-27) -15 0 -8 -2 sum=-25

Cov(a,b) = -25/4 = -6.25

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FRM-99, Question 6 Daily returns on spot positions of the Euro against USD are highly correlated with returns on spot holdings of Yen against USD. This implies that: A. When Euro strengthens against USD, the yen also tends to strengthens, but returns are not necessarily equal. B. The two sets of returns tend to be almost equal C. The two sets of returns tend to be almost equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. D. None of the above. FRM-99, Question 10 You want to estimate correlation between stocks in Frankfurt and Tokyo. You have prices of selected securities. How will time discrepancy bias the computed volatilities for individual stocks and correlations between these two markets? A. Increased volatility with correlation unchanged. B. Lower volatility with lower correlation. C. Volatility unchanged with lower correlation. D. Volatility unchanged with correlation unchanged. The non-synchronicity of prices does not affect the volatility, but will induce some error in the correlation coefficient across series. Intuitively, this is similar to the effect of errors in the variables, which biased downward the slope coefficient and the correlation. FRM-00, Question 125 If the F-test shows that the set of X variables explains a significant amount of variation in the Y variable, then: A. Another linear regression model should be tried. B. A t-test should be used to test which of the individual X variables can be discarded. C. A transformation of Y should be made. D. Another test could be done using an indicator variable to test significance of the model. The F-test applies to the group of variables but does not say which one is most significant. To identify which particular variable is significant or not, we use a t-test and discard the variables that do not display individual significance. FRM-00, Question 112 Positive autocorrelation of prices can be defined as: A. An upward movement in price is more likely to be followed by another upward movement in price. B. A downward movement in price is more likely to be followed by another downward movement. C. Both A and B. D. Historic prices have no correlation with future prices. FRM-00, Question 112 Positive autocorrelation of prices can be defined as: A. An upward movement in price is more likely to be followed by another upward movement in price. B. A downward movement in price is more likely to be followed by another downward movement. C. Both A and B. D. Historic prices have no correlation with future prices. Answer C: both A and B

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